Ciudad Guayana is the most populous and most important city in the Bolivar state, in Venezuela. The city has a population of 751,331 (2011 census), making it the fifth most populated city in Venezuela and the largest city in all of the south-east of Venezuela, being an industrial, economic and financial center of southern Venezuela. It is a city planned from a concept developed by a team of Venezuelan professionals led by General Rafael Alfonzo Ravard in technical collaboration with the Institute of Technology and Harvard University, and later executed and completed by the Venezuelan Guayana Corporation, Puerto Ordaz, was built along the northern margin of the Caroni River, where the first residences were settled And then the Orinoco Mining Company, and then the enlargements with the sectors Alta Vista, Unare, Matanzas, and Cambalache, San Felix was established on the southern side of the Caroní River.
|Other names: Iron City, Industrial City, The City of Miners and The Pearl of the Orinoco|
Location of Guayana City in Venezuela
Localization of Ciudad Guayana in Bolívar (Venezuela)
|Coordinates||8°21′35″N 62°39′06″W / 8.3596166666667, -62.65165277778 Coordinates: 8°21′35″N 62°39′06″W / 8.3596166666667, -62.65165277778|
|・ State||Bolívar State|
|Mayor||Tito Oviedo (PSUV)|
|・ Foundation||July 2, 1961|
|・ Total||322 km²|
|・ Average||82 m sec. n. m.|
|Water course||Orinoco River, Caroní River|
|Population (2011)||7Th Position|
|・ Total||751,331 rooms.|
|・ Density||3,312.9 hab/km²|
|Sister with||Brasilia, Bolivar City, El Pao, El Tigre, Georgetown, Maturín, Upata|
Ciudad Guayana is made up of the communities of San Felix, Puerto Ordaz, Alta Vista Norte y Sur, Unare, Cambalache and Matanzas; located at the mouth of the Caroni river, the city is a river port linking the eastern venezuelan region and the rest of the world, and has highly active residential, commercial, industrial and tourist spaces, joining the San Felix sector of Guayana with the other sectors by three bridges crossing the Caroni river, very close to its mouth on the Orinoco River. Located as it is at the confluence of both rivers, it makes the most of the beauty of the Caroni jumps and rivers, integrating them uniquely into their urban landscape.
It was conceived as a suitable scenario for development in the south of the country, as it responds to the magnitude and importance of the regional resources available: iron ore, wide availability of hydroelectric power, agricultural and forestry potential, gold, diamonds, bauxite and manganese, combined with its location adjacent to a formidable waterway: the Orinoco River. The Macagua and Guri hydroelectric power stations provide the total commercial electricity generated in Guyana and 72% of the national consumption.
The city has a nominal GDP of $70.75 billion and a nominal per capita GDP of $8,737, representing a per capita GDP of $15,129, which puts it in seventh place in the country, by economic activity.
It is the capital of the municipality of Caroní, governed by a mayor and his municipality. The municipality is divided into 11 parishes, 8 urban: Unare, University and Kashamay on the north side; and Dalla Costa, Simón Bolívar, Vista al Sol, Chirica and Once de abril in San Felix, in addition to 3 rural parishes: Yocoima, Pozo Verde and the recently acquired one, July 5, which borders the municipality of Casacoima, Delta Amacuro state, to which it previously belonged.
The first explorations were organized by Diego de Ordaz in 1531, the expedition led by Juan González Sosa discovered an unknown world of jungles and plains on the banks of the fabulous Orinoco River. In 1535 another expedition was led by Lieutenant Alfonso de Herrera. It was after the movements of conquest and colonization, when Antonio de Berrío, founded Santo Tome from Guayana at the confluence of the Caroni River with the Orinoco, in the country of Carapana near the indigenous village of Cachamay, the city was founded multiple times in different places, due to the continuous attacks of pirates and conquerors who destroyed it to enter the Orinoco River in search of El Dorado ...
In 1618, when the old lady was near Guyana, an English expedition sent by Walter Raleigh looted and totally destroyed her. In 1764, she was transferred to Angostura, now Ciudad Bolívar, due to the continuous attacks of English and Dutch pirates. The last foundation was carried out on its original site on July 2, 1961 and was called Ciudad Guayana. To the west of the city is the industrial zone of Matanzas, the urban area of Puerto Ordaz in the center and San Felix to the east.
For the design and planning of the city, the Venezuelan Corporation of Guyana requested the participation of the urban study center of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Within the city, the Caroni Park consisting of the parks La Llovizna, Cachamay and Löefling, which are a representative example of the majesty and beauty of the Caroni River, other parks of interest are La Fundación Park and the Paseo Malecón de San Felix. For those interested in the basic industries of Venezuela, some of them have a visiting schedule that can be known through their respective PR managers. In the surrounding area, less than 100 kilometers away is Ciudad Bolívar, the historical site par excellence of the Bolivar state, on the other side of the river is La Mission del Caroní (Caroni Ruins), the Castles de Guayana and the forest plantations.
The area of Puerto Ordaz was built and planned by the Orinoco Mining Company and the Venezuelan Guayana Corporation in the mid-20th century.
On November 13, 2006, the Orinoquia Bridge, the second largest bridge in the country, opened, facilitating communication from Ciudad Guayana to the opposite bank of the Orinoco River in Anzoátegui and Monagas states.
The Escudo is surrounded by a blue curb with eight stars. divided by two main barracks: The one on the upper left contains a candle ship displayed, representing one of those towards the Indian trade in the 18th century, at the bottom three pineapples of our continent that represents, fruit discovered and converted into a symbol of tropical America, in the image of Europeans.
In the second barracks are represented the present and the future. The red-tore triangle means the struggle, the human effort to convert the country's mineral wealth and use the energy to produce it. The shield crowned over the undulating lines represent two rivers, the Orinoco and the Caroni, the mill rock, symbolizes the name of the Father of the Homeland, the state and the first widely productive human machine. At the bottom is a yellow ribbon identifying the most important dates of Sao Tome's life in Guayana.
The city is located at an altitude of 13 meters at the confluence of the Caroní and Orinoco rivers. It is connected by highway to Ciudad Bolívar and Upata and by roads to the Guayana Administrative Region. It is also the terminal of the mining railway of the deposits of Cerro Bolívar. Puerto de Ciudad Guayana has been reopened due to the reactivation of the river axis Apure-Orinoco.
It is an important center for the National Basic Industry, the landing of the minerals of bauxite from Los Pijiguaos, such as the exports of iron, aluminum and steel are some of the activities that take place here. It has several iron ore concentration plants, a steel smelter, a bauxite and alumina processing plant, two aluminum industries, a coal anode manufacturing plant, a fluorinated product complex, cement production and several derived industries that benefit from the hydroelectric potential of the Caroni River, with the Simón Bolívar Hydroelectric Power Station. In this city, the two most important rivers of the country, El Caroní and El Orinoco, come together, creating an area called Caronoco in honor of this confluence. From one of the bridges linking Puerto Ordaz to San Felix, one can see this union of which the illustrious Arturo Uslar Pietri wrote the following sentence:
...it's a polished black steel river and it enters like a clean dagger on the muddy side of the brown Orinoco earth monster.
|Average Weather Parameters of Ciudad Guayana|
|Temp. max. Aps. (°C)||34||36||37||36||37||34||35||33||36||35||36||36||37|
|Temp. max. mean (°C)||32||32||34||34||33||31||31||31||31||33||33||33||32.3|
|Temp. mean (°C)||25||25||27||28||28||26||29||27||28||28||26||26||26.9|
|Temp. min. mean (°C)||22||20||21||22||24||22||23||21||22||21||21||20||21.6|
|Temp. min. Aps. (°C)||19||18||18||19||20||19||19||18||19||18||18||18||18|
|Total precipitation (mm)||82.2||48.3||56.6||68.7||123.5||230.5||200.4||255.4||120.8||69||73.9||89.8||1419.1|
|Source: Puerto Ordaz RA 1 Station / Puerto Ordaz; by INAMEH. Data collected over a 27-year period from 1954 to 1981. |
The municipality of Caroní is made up of 11 parishes: Cachamay, Chirica, Dalla Costa, April 11, Simón Bolívar, Unare, Universidad, Vista al Sol, Pozo Verde, Yocoima and the new parish 5 de Julio, which belonged to the Casacoima municipality of Delta Amacuro state. Poverty in the municipality of Caroní is 17.29% and extreme poverty is 5.67%, accounting for 22.86% of the population.
The disaggregated poverty data by parish are:
|Parish||! % of Poverty||% Extreme Poverty |
|3. Dalla Costa||14.28%||2.32%|
|4. Eleven April||22.35%||7.33%|
|5. Simón Bolívar||12.11%||1.55%|
|8. Sun view||20.08%||5.67%|
|9. Green well||41.32%||31.08%|
In Ciudad Guayana three types of landscapes are present: Peniplanicie, Peniplanicie and Lomerío. The Topography of the plains landscape is flat with slopes between 0-4%. The plains have a severely wavy topography with slopes of 4-16% and the landscapes of Lomerío are of corrugated topography to strongly wavy topography and are made up of holly reliefs whose slopes are greater than 8%.
Recent unconsolidated sedimentary deposits of the Formation Mesa del Plio-Pleistocene (sand, silts and clays), which surround the rocks of the Imataca Complex of the Precambico (granite rocks, feldous gneises and iron-banded formations).
It is an area that offers a diversity of flora, this diversity could be explained by the great stability of the Guayana Massif throughout the geological eras, which has only been affected by climate changes, particularly during periods of severe droughts.
The importance of the fauna lies in its value as a source of food. It is a significant element as it is directly involved in the food cycle. Registered: danta, báquiro, chigüire, crocodile of the Orinoco, caiman of eyeglasses, green anaconda, pink dolphin, deer, cunaguaro, puercoespín, guacamaya, hummingles, cristofué, herons, zapoara, aimara, cascabel, culebra verde gallo, terecay, among others.
The hydrography is made up of 7 main watersheds highlighting the rivers: Orinoco, Cuyuní, Caroni, Caura, Aro, Cuchivero, Parguaza and Paragua. The hydrographic system is divided into two sections: the one consisting of the rivers that flow into the Orinoco and those that bring their waters to the Cuyuní River. It concentrates the largest national water reserve (about 3/4 parts of the state are crossed by waterways). The Bolivar state, thanks to its rivers, has great hydroelectric potential (75% of the country's gross wealth).
Fundación La Barraca
Ecomuseum of Caroni
The Ecomuseo del Caroní is a cultural building created in 1998, it develops expository, educational, cultural and entertainment activities, under a scientific-cultural perspective, in order to make known all the assets that make up the heritage of the Caroni River Basin and its hydroelectric development, including fauna, flora, hydrology and energy potential. In its installations, which are an example of the integration of art and architecture, the works of the teachers Carlos Cruz-Diez and Alejandro Otero are exhibited.
In the past, he had a coffee shop and a documentation center. It is located within the hydroelectric complex "Antonio José de Sucre", formerly known as "23 de Jan", between Pedro Palacios Herrera and Leopoldo Sucre Figarella avenues.
Castles in Guyana
30 km from San Felix on the road to Piacoa in Delta Amacuro State, there are the Castles of Guayana, buildings built on rocky hills on the right bank of the Orinoco River during the colonial period to protect Sao Tome de Guayana from the attacks of pirates and adventurers who fabulously sought El Dorado, the most fabulous invention of the year our indigenous people who would make the febrile minds of the conquerors crazy.
San Francisco de Assisi Castle (Fort Villapol), the first of the castles, was built on the banks of the Orinoco in the 17th century between 1678 and 1684, according to Gerónimo Martínez-Mendoza, by order of Governor Cap Tiburcio de Axpe and Zúñiga, in the narrowest part of the Orinoco after Aninoco gostura, on the land where the sponsorship of San Francisco was, established by Don Antonio de Berrío, first governor of Guayana and founder of São Tomé de Guayana.
El PadTrack Castle or San Diego Castle (Fort Campo Elias), years later and to reinforce the defenses of the first castle was built the Castle of El PadTrack or San Diego - a construction started in 1747 - so called for having been located on a high or stepfather, from where the Castle of San Francisco is dominated and protected. These castles were restored in 1897 by the then President of Venezuela, Joaquín Crespo, who renamed them Fuerte Campo Elias to San Diego Castle and Fuerte Villapol to San Francisco Castle, in honor of these heroes who, despite being born in Spain, fought in the Republican ranks during the war of independence.
Ruins of Caroni Missions
They are called the Ruins of the Mission of the Putrist Conception of the Caroni, or better known as "The Missions of the Caroni." These ruins served as the governing house of the Catalan Capuchins, and was declared National Historical Monument on August 2, 1960. It exemplifies a magnificent building belonging to the colonial architecture, finally built with stones, bricks, tiles, wood and argamasa, which gave it a structure strong enough to be preserved through the centuries.
A belfry, the chapel and a beautiful mural composed of images representing the sun and moon, clouds and angels, as well as silhouettes, presumably representing the virgin of the Immaculate Conception and San Francisco de Assisi, are components that are observed within this rectangular space that obeys the structure of the main house of the temple or church. It is equipped with a parking lot that connects the temple through a cobbled walkway and connects to the bank of the Macagua Reservoir.
Plaza del Agua
It is a civic center consisting of outdoor spaces, recreation areas, a small amphitheater and a set of fountains where water is simply gravity from the Macagua II Dam. From this place you have a beautiful panorama of the Hydroelectric Complex 23 of January - Macagua II.
It was founded by the Venezuelan Guayana Corporation and opened on the 25th anniversary of the C.V.G. on 29/12/1985. It consists of two iron monitors brought from Cerro San Isidro. It is located in the Alta Vista commercial area.
CVG Monument Square
It has an area of 2.2 hectares with 8000M2 of walkways and 6500M in green areas, which is a new meeting space for Guayaneans. Opened in 2004 by the C.V.G., it was built to pay permanent tribute to those who have dedicated their lives to consolidating the development of the Region.
Ciudad Guayana is a city with very few years of foundation, so its gastronomy is modern and simplistic, it can be said that it is very transcultural.
Ciudad Guayana is home to basic companies that form the C.V.G. (Corporation Venezolana de Guayana), such as Alcasa, Venalum, Bauxilum, Carbonorca (producers of primary aluminum, alumina and coal anodes for the aluminum industry, respectively), Ferrominera (extraction, processing and marketing of iron). It is also home to the Orinoco Steel Company (Sidor). The main electricity producer in Venezuela, Corpoelec-Edelca, the Guayana and Caroni banks, and the Forestry Products of the Orient C.A. (Proforca) are also based in this sector of the city. The city also has several industrial zones, such as Unare I, II and III, and Los Pinos, with companies oriented to food processing, metallurgical and manufacturing.
The Tocoma dam officially Manuel Piar Hydroelectric Plant is a hydroelectric power plant in Venezuela located in the lower Caroní River, in the Bolivar state. It is under construction and is the latest hydroelectric development project in the lower Caroni basin. The project includes the installation of 2,300 MW to generate an average annual energy of 12,100 GWh. Ten 230 MW Kaplan generating units, manufactured by the Argentine company IMPSA, are expected to start operating between 2012 and 2014.
The Caruachi Dam is a water reservoir located more than 60 kilometers downstream from the Guri Reservoir, and 25 kilometers upstream of the Macagua Reservoir in Venezuela. It opened in 2006 and covers an area of 250 km². It contributes 12% of the national electricity demand. It is also known as the Francisco de Miranda Hydroelectric Power Plant.
CVG Edelca, faced with the high environmental impact of the construction of the third hydroelectric dam in Caroni, worked together with the Ministry of the Environment, to rescue the flora, fauna and valuable archeological treasures that were found in the region and that are now permanently exhibited in the Ecomuseo del Caroní.
The 12 generators of the Caruachi Dam machine room are covered with reproductions of ethnic Yekuana baskets. Each turbine represents the tribe myths by covering a 16-meter diameter space to cover the entire turbine. While the walls feature large reproductions of 13 indigenous petroglyphs from different regions of Guyana and Venezuela.
The Macagua Dam, also known as the Antonio Jose Hydroelectric Power Plant in Sucre, is part of the Bolívar State Power Plant. It consists of three stages: Macagua I, which has 6 small units; Macagua II, with 12 units; and the newest Macagua III, which has 2 units. The complex generates 2,190 MW. It is 322 m long and has 12 radial gates 22 m wide and 15.6 m high.
Macagua is the only dam in the world inside a city. You can admire it from Puerto Ordaz, heading to San Felix. Inside it is located the Plaza del Agua and the Ecomuseo del Caroní. One of the main attractions of the place is a bridge that rises over the easel, through which you can drive.
Because of its geographical location and the significant amount of industrial activities that are taking place in its surroundings, it has attracted thousands of immigrants since the development of the various activities that are taking place in the surrounding areas (Mining, Hydroelectricity, Oil Extraction, Timber Exploitation, among others), it has attracted thousands of immigrants from different regions of the world, who have settled there because of the high development that this area has begun to present.
With the development of the mining activity and the number of companies that established themselves there, the population increased significantly, due to the great income opportunity that existed in the area and its high development for many years.
The city has different ethnic groups and maintains a multidiverse population in which Asian, American, and European roots, who moved to the region as a reason to enter the city's nascent industry, play key roles.
In their population there are groups of different countries such as; Russia, the United States, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, Colombia, Spain, the United Kingdom, all of which contributed significantly to the region's mix, changing it and becoming more diverse over the years.
Its population is divided into four different groups, which present themselves as follows:
- White: 47.6%
- Mestizos: 44.2%
- Amerindians: 4.3%
- Black/Afro-descendants: 0.9%
- Others: 3.0%
Seeing the need to build a place where the region's sport could be celebrated and developed properly, the Venezuelan Corporation of Guayana started the construction of the Cachamay sports center in 1988. The original name of the complex was Gino Scarigella, named in memory of the referee of Italian descent who lost his life pitching an amateur football match on his grounds, years before the first stone was laid.
In 1990, the sports club was officially inaugurated, with a capacity of 14,000 people. It was the regional press that called it Polimarina Cachamay in its first days of founding, due to its proximity to Parque Cachamay, speaking in the general community in such a way that it currently does not know or remembers its original name.
The stadium was chosen as the deputy headquarters for the 2007 Copa América Venezuela, which made it necessary to carry out enlargement and remodeling work. Because of this, the Venezuelan Corporation of Guayana handed over the stadium land to the Government of Bolivar State, with a 25-year-long wildcard.
The company responsible for the renovation of the Politico Cachamay was the Mexican construction company ICA, responsible for having held more than 20 stadiums in Mexico and Latin America, among which is the Estadio Azteca. The work started in mid-April 2006.
After its full expansion and refurbishment, the stadium was reopened on June 22, 2007, under the name of Total Kashamay Entertainment Center.
La Ceiba Stadium
La Ceiba stadium, inaugurated on November 1, 1998 with the Caribes-Águilas Game, is a sports infrastructure suitable for baseball practice located on Avenida Centurión, which, although it currently does not have a professional team accepted by the Venezuelan Professional Baseball League, is the largest baseball stadium in the country and the second in Latin America, after Latino in Havana, Cuba, it has a capacity of approximately 30,000 viewers.
For many years, it has been abandoned, but the interest to be admitted to the league has caused the regional government to regain its spaces, it has eight lighting towers, it has a police module, yellow and green colored chairs were placed, public services were restored, and access and grass were improved.
Mexico City has several professional football teams that participate in the various professional football divisions, the most important is Mineros de Guayana (Miners of Guyana), the most successful at the national and international level and one of the best in Venezuela and LALA F.C., both of which are active in Venezuela's First Division, Chicó de Guayana F.C. and Fundación AIFI, both of which are active in Venezuela's Second Division all based in the majestic Cachamay Stadium. In basketball playing in the LPB is the Guayana Giants team and in the Volleyball playing in the LVV is the Bolívar Hurricanes team, whose home is the Gym Hermanas González, with a capacity of 2600 spectators.
The city is the headquarters and goal of the International Nautical Rally Our rivers are navigable, the most important at national level and the longest in the world carried out in freshwater.
Within the city are La Llovizna, Pehr Loefling and Cachamay parks, with their natural waterfalls. Other local attractions include the Ecomuseo del Caroní, the Macagua II Dam, probably the only case of a natural-leap bypass dam within a city. The relief fracture of this natural leap presents two natural water falls: the waterfall of Cachamay, close to the city itself, with a width of about 800 m, albeit a low height, and that of La Llovizna, with several higher altitudes and high altitude, but a little shorter. In the latter area, located on the right bank of the Caroni (near the former Mission of the Caroni, founded by the Catalan cappuchins), the Macagua I hydroelectric power plant was built, diverting some of the river flow and taking advantage of the natural slope of the relief. The dam was considerably expanded with a larger and higher-altitude dam, which gave rise to a larger hydroelectric power plant, along with the one that already existed.
In the city, from the Angosturita Bridge and in the port of San Felix, you can observe the junction of the Orinoco and Caroní rivers; the differentiated color of the waters of both rivers presents the natural spectacle of the struggle between two currents that first coexist, then brainer and finally mix.
Although Ciudad Guayana, being far from the sea, has no marine beaches, it does have beaches on the edge of the Macagua Reservoir on the banks of the Caroni River. Among them, there is a camp called Playa Bonita, with tourist facilities.
Taking Puerto Ordaz as a starting point, you can visit the Orinoco Delta, Canaima National Park, the Guri Reservoir, the colonial castles on the banks of the Orinoco River and many other points of interest. The Castillos de Guayana are located on the right-hand side of the Orinoco River, about 22 miles downstream of San Felix, although already in the territory of the state Delta Amacuro.
Ciudad Guayana is home to universities such as:
- Universidad Oriente- (UDO) Experimental Unit Puerto Ordaz - San Felix (UEPO)
- Bolivarian University of Workers "Jesús Rivero" - (UBT)
- Bolivarian University of Venezuela - (UBV)
- Andrés Bello Catholic University - Guayana (UCAB)
- Bicentennial University of Aragua (UBA)
- National Experimental Polytechnical University (UNEXPO)
- National Experimental University of Guyana (UNEG)
- National Experimental Polytechnical University of the Bolivarian Armed Forces (UNEFA)
- Gran Mariscal University of Ayacucho (UGMA)
From University Institutes of Technology:
- La Salle de Ciencias Naturales Foundation (San Felix)
- I.U.T.I. Rodolfo Loero Arismendi (IUTIRLA)
- I.U.T. Antonio José de Sucre (IUTAJS)
- I.U.T. Pedro Emilio Coll (IUTPEC)
From Polytechnic University Institutes
- Instituto Universitario Polytechnico Santiago Mariño (IUPSM)
And regional centers of study houses like:
- Andrés Bello Catholic University (UCAB)
- University of the East (UDO)
- Gran Mariscal University of Ayacucho (UGMA)
- Bicentennial University of Aragua (UBA)
- Technical Industrial School Fundación LA SALLE
- Raul Leoni Technical Industrial School
- Bicentennial Commercial Technical School
- Simón Rodríguez Technical School
- Andrés Bello Technical School
- Educational Unit and Jesús Obrero Technical School
- Manuel Jara Colmenares Technical Commercial School
Road and transport
Ciudad Guayana has excellent river communication with the rest of the world. It connects with northern Brazil by an excellent road of 700 km. Iron ore is transported from mines to Ciudad Guayana by a railroad network of approximately 200 km, bauxite is transported in barges - barges - across the Orinoco River. The city also houses a BRT superficial mass transportation system called BTR "Battle of Saint Felix".
Manuel Piar SVPR International Airport is the main airline terminal in the south of the country. It is managed by the Autonomous Service of Bolivar State Airports (SAAR).
Its main avenues are:
- Av Guayana:is the main avenue of the city, which crosses it from east to west.
- Av Atlántico: It is located in the south of the city and is one of the main roads of the city, being the second longest avenue in the sector of Puerto Ordaz.
- Av Paseo Caroni:is one of the main avenues of the city.
- Av the Americas: communicates the Altavista sector with the Castillito sector.
- Av Expresses 01: it travels north of the city in the industrial area of matanzas and links it to the area of Puerto Ordaz and San Felix.
- Castillito's main avenue.
- North-South Av 01:links the industrial area of Matanzas to the airport, Altavista and the south of the city.
- Av Armed Forces: it links atlantic avenue with the industrial zone and slaughter.
- North South Av 6: It links Avenida Atlántico with the end of the Caroni promenade and the Matanzas industrial area.
- Liberator Av: it is one of the main avenues of San Felix.
The fastest growing sector of the city is in the sector of Puerto Ordaz mainly in the west and in Altavista.
Guayana City is the third industrial hub of the country behind Valencia and Maracay
- Matanzas Industrial Zone
- Industrial zone Chirica
- Matanzas Sur industrial zone
- Los Pinos Industrial Zone
- Cambalache Industrial Zone
- Unare I Industrial Zone
- Unare II industrial zone
- Unare III Industrial Zone
- CHANNEL 12 Tv Guayana
- CHANNEL 55 Orinoco Television (Off the Air)
- CHANNEL 69 Calipso (Off Air)
- Oro Tv Channel 3 (Cable Success)
- Planet Tv Channel 3 (Planet Cable)
- Zamora Tv Channel 3 (Cable Network)
- Caroni Mail
- Journal Primicia
- El Diario de Guayana
- New Press of Guyana
- Brasilia, Brazil
- Ciudad Bolívar, Estado Bolívar
- El Pao, Estado Bolívar
- Tigre, Anzoátegui State
- Georgetown, Guyana
- Maturin, Monagas State
- Upata, Estado Bolívar